FAQs

Waterproofing geosynthetics material

Q1: Where is your company located?  

A:Our company is located in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Q2: Can you provide a sample for us?

A:Yes,We can send free samples,but customer need to pay the freight.

 Q3: What is your minimum order quantity? 

A:The minimum order quantity is 5000 square Meter,but it is negotiable.

 Q4:What is your payment terms?

A: T/T,Western Union,L/C...

 Q5:What is your delivery time?

A:Production time usually costs 3-5 days,production ability:5000-7000 square meter per day.

RO water treatment system

What types of water sources does it treat?

Reverse Osmosis is an ideal water treatment solution in most types of water.tap water, also known as municipal sources, undergroundwater, which includes brackish water, and saltwater. The biggest distinction between these three types is the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content of each type. As a rule of thumb, the American Health Association requires that drinking water is under 2,000 PPM TDS.Reverse osmosis is often used in a tap water environment to reduce hardness, or the debris deposited in water from traveling in metal pipes. Total dissolved solids is often a target of water purification in tap water systems.Underground reservoirs of water are often brackish, meaning they contain large volumes of salt, but not enough to be considered salt water. Groundwater is most often purified for the agriculture industry, the mining industry. Groundwater is also a prized target of the bottling industry, because the unique mineral combinations often have an appealing taste.
Salt water reverse osmosis (sometimes referred to as desalination) is the turning of saltwater into drinking water. Ocean water has up to 45,000 PPM TDS. The biggest uses of desalination come in providing water in areas that lack a regular supply of fresh water.

Is pretreatment necessary?

It is very important that feed water be preconditioned to protect the membranes from fouling causing premature failure.The membrane is constructed of a porous material that allows water to pass through, but rejects up to 99% of the dissolved solids at the surface. The dissolved salts are concentrated reject water (brine stream), where they are discharged to waste. Removing things prior is key to letting the RO system do what it was meant to do.As the RO System continues to operate, the dissolved and suspended solids in the feed water tend to accumulate along the membrane surface. If these solids are allowed to build up, they eventually restrict the passage of water through the membranes, resulting in a loss of throughput. (The throughput capacity of the membranes is commonly referred to as the flux rate, and is measured in gallons per square foot of membranes surface area per day.)

Is it necessary to get a water analysis?

A detailed chemical analysis (LSI, SDI, or CFI) of the RO feed water is an absolute necessity for identifying potential foulants. This should include a measurement of the hardness (calcium and magnesium), barium, strontium, alkalinity, pH, and chlorine. The data from the chemical analysis can be used by the engineers designing the system to determine the optimum

membrane array that will both minimize the tendency of scale and deposit formation and maximize the recovery and flux rate.

What determines the precise pretreatments for a particular RO?

In one word: analysis. Every source of water is different, and you never know what's in your water until you have it analyzed. The water analysis, LSI, SDI, or CFI values are used to determine the precise pretreatment requirements for a particular RO System. Since water supplies vary considerably from one location to another, each pretreatment requirement will be different.

Does the feed water need to be softened by the RO?

Ion exchange is a popular method for softening and reducing the potential for mineral scale formation on the membrane surface. Ion exchange softening uses sodium to replace scaleforming ions such as calcium, magnesium, barium, strontium, iron, and aluminum to prevent damage to the membrane elements. The sodium forms very soluble salts, which are readily rejected by the Reverse Osmosis System and do not readily form mineral scales on the membrane surface. A sodiumcycle softener is regenerated with sodium chloride brine. The spent regenerant, along with the softener rinse water, must be discharged to waste. It is because of this that ion exchange is recommended for applications that have high metal contents in the treated water.

 Is acid injection necessary?

Just as acidic solutions aren't good for membranes, caustic solutions are equally damaging to membrane elements. Acid injection may be incorporated into the RO pretreatment system to control pH and minimize the scale-forming tendency of the feed water. Acid injection is indicated if the scale forming tendency of the brine stream is above +0.3 as measured by the LSI. Either sulfuric or hydrochloric acid can be used for this purpose.

 What does an antiscalant do?

Antiscalants have been shown to be effective in extending the intervals between chemical cleanings of the RO membranes. These products are generally formulated to include inorganic phosphates, organophosphates, and dispersants. Some Antiscalant contain negatively charged polymers and dispersants that can react with cationic polymers that might be dosed up stream prior to the media filters. The Antiscalant must be compatible with these polymers; otherwise, the reaction product will foul the membranes.

Do all systems require chemical cleaning?

Despite all efforts to protect the system from fouling and lose flux, eventually the membranes will require chemical cleaning. A welldesigned RO system will include provisions for a cleaning skid to facilitate the cleaning process. The skid should include a chemical tank, solution heater, recirculating pump, drains, hoses, and all other connection and fittings required for accomplishing a complete chemical cleaning of the RO modules.

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